August - September 2006
Recently, male grooming has been brought to our attention by
magazines which are designed for Men and the rise of male
icons in the media. Men experience specific problems with
their skin and hair, which require specific solutions. At
last, men are taking male grooming into their own hands.
Men tend to wear their hair shorter, with a natural hair
colour and shape. Overall, this means that they tend not to
suffer from split ends and frizz. However, in order to style
short hair, stronger styling preparations are required, such
as gels and waxes. These can leave heavy deposits on the
scalp, which needs to be cleansed thoroughly.
Men also tend
to suffer from dandruff, due to frequent washing of their
hair. Dandruff is caused by a natural yeast, encouraging the
scalp to shed dead skin (seen as white flakes). Specialist
anti-dandruff shampoos should be used regularly to control
this condition. Mild formulas or 2-in-1 shampoo and
conditioners are recommended for men that frequently wash
their hair and do not use heavy styling products. For those
who do use gel or wax, an anti-build up formula is
recommended to cleanse any stubborn residue on the scalp.
To prevent thinning hair, or to improve the appearance of
balding hair, thickening shampoos can be used. However, this
does not halt the progress of male pattern baldness. A drug
called Minoxidil (also known as Regaine) can also be used to
improve the thickness of hair, but it is not always 100%
Men that suffer from dry skin (can be noticed if you
experience a tight, dry feeling after washing or shaving)
should use rich moisturisers. There are many unisex ranges
which offer this, as male-specific ranges tend to be quite
Those that suffer from greasy skin should use a light lotion
moisturiser or lightly scented aftershave balm.
Men that often suffer from shaving rash or razor burn
(unsightly red bumps due to swollen hair follicles which are
often itchy and irritated) should use pre-shave cleansing
and exfoliation to minimise this problem. If the skin is
still reactive, fragrance and colour-free products should be
Men should shave after cleansing, and before moisturising.
If you shave once a day, then it is necessary to cleanse and
moisturise twice a day (in the morning and at night).
There are several choices when it comes to shaving. Some
methods have a more profound effect on the skin than others,
therefore it is important to find a balance between the
comfort and structure of the epidermis, whilst achieving the
closest possible shave. There are two main methods of
shaving: wet shaving and power shaving.
Wet razors are either entirely disposable or just have
disposable heads (the thicker the hair, the more often the
heads need to be replaced). These slice off the hair at skin
level, or just below it. It is particularly suitable for men
with thick, coarse hair growth and is effective in removing
longer hairs. However, razor burn is a common problem for
those that wet shave and cuts often occur if full attention
is not given when shaving. In order to maximise the
performance of a wet shave, it is suggested that the skin is
softened and lubricated first. Skin should first be cleansed
using a facial wash, then a specialist cream, gel or foam
should be applied to provide a smooth pathway for the razor.
This prevents dragging and nicking. Exfoliation is also an
important routine for men to do two or three times a week
because it improves a man’s shave by preventing in growing
hairs. Shaving should occur in a downwards motion in order
to minimise irritation of the skin.
Power shaving involves using a mains, and a battery operated
shaving unit to whisk the hairs off at high speed. It is
suitable for all skin types and does not require shaving
preparations. However, it is not as effective on tough,
dense and very dark hair. For electric shaving, the face
should be clean and dry with stubble not too long. The skin
needs to be thoroughly cleansed beforehand and regularly
exfoliated. A closer shave can be achieved by pulling the
skin taut to encourage the hairs to stand on end and make
them easier to trim. It can be difficult to reach some areas
with a power shaver, such as beneath the nose and above the
lips. Here, an integral trimmer is ideal.
Tips to overcome a hangover!
Skin becomes very dehydrated after drinking alcohol, so
ensure that you have plenty of water the next day.
Dehydration leads to irritation of the skin, so make sure
that you splash enough water on your skin prior to shaving.
Use an eye cream to reduce the puffiness and camouflage dark
Ignore coffee and stick to water for the remainder of the
The best way to achieve healthy, youthful skin is to stop
smoking. Smoking leads to dehydration of your skin and
deprives it of oxygen. Overall, this causes your skin to
look sallow and prematurely wrinkled.
When you inhale cigarette smoke, free radicals are produced
in your lungs which trigger off inflammatory responses in
your body. This leads to lines or wrinkles on the face,
causing gauntness and prominence of the underlying bony
Shashi Gossain Bsc (Hons), Member of the Royal
Pharmaceutical Society & Member of the Society of Cosmetic
Hepatitis B is a viral liver disease which if left untreated
can lead to death from cirrhosis, liver failure, or liver
A London specialist says the UK is seeing around 2000 new
cases of hepatitis B per year, the vast majority occurring
among recent immigrants. There are currently 180,000 people
in the UK with hepatitis B, about half of these living in
It affects two billion people worldwide, around one third of
the global population of whom about 400 million are carriers
of the infection experiencing no symptoms. In some parts of
the world including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and China,
the disease is endemic and large numbers are infected.
A new treatment for people suffering from chronic hepatitis
B infection, has just been approved for use in Europe and
could be in the UK as early as this autumn. The drug
developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb is called Baraclude (entecavir).
It is swallowed as a tablet and is highly effective, say
BARACLUDE® (entecavir) AUTHORISED IN EUROPE FOR TREATMENT OF
CHRONIC HEPATITIS B
PARIS, (DATE, 2006) -- Bristol-Myers Squibb announced today
that the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) has
approved Baraclude® (entecavir) for the treatment of chronic
hepatitis B virus infection.
Baraclude is an oral antiviral therapy specifically designed
to block the replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The
medicine, which was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, is
expected to be available in the UK in the third quarter of
2006. Baraclude will also be available in other
countries in the European Union, the Middle East and Africa
around the same time.
Baraclude is indicated for use in adults with chronic
hepatitis B infection with compensated liver disease and
evidence of active viral replication, persistent elevations
of the blood levels of aminotransferases – a marker for
liver disease – or active liver disease as determined by
“With the approval of Baraclude in Europe, Bristol-Myers
Squibb will address another area of significant medical
need: hepatitis B,” said Beatrice Cazala, President, Europe,
Middle East and Africa for Bristol-Myers Squibb. “Baraclude
is another example of how we are living our mission of
extending and enhancing human life by focusing on
discovering and developing innovative treatments for
Chronic hepatitis B infection is a potentially
life-threatening disease and is a serious global public
health issue. The Department of Health estimates that 0.3%
of the UK population is chronically infected with hepatitis
B, equivalent to some 180,000 people.
Hepatitis B is the 10th leading cause of death worldwide,
causing 1.2 million deaths annually, and is the main cause
of hepatocellular carcinoma, a form of liver cancer.
The hepatitis B virus is 100 times more infectious than HIV,
the virus that causes AIDS.
Measuring the amount of the hepatitis B virus in a person’s
bloodstream – also known as the viral load – can be an
important way to predict their
progression to serious liver disease and liver cancer.
Recent studies have shown that among hepatitis B patients
who have the highest viral load levels, there is a
significantly increased future risk of eventually developing
cirrhosis and liver cancer.
“Hepatitis B is a worldwide problem, yet awareness remains
low in the UK. The virus can remain dormant and the disease
silent for many years which means that thousands of people
are still unaware they even have the disease,” said
Professor Geoffrey Dusheiko, Department of Medicine, Royal
Free Hospital, London.
The benefits seen in studies of Baraclude relate to its
ability to slow the progression of chronic HBV infection.
This was shown in three clinical studies in patients naïve
to previous antiviral treatment and in patients with
resistance to lamivudine, another anti-hepatitis B agent,
infected by wild type virus (HBeAg positive), pre-core
mutant virus (HBeAg negative) and with compensated liver
After 48 weeks of treatment – or two years for those with
only a virological response initially – Baraclude achieved
responses higher or similar to lamivudine, with regard to
improvement in the liver inflammation and degree of liver
fibrosis (scarring) caused by HBV, reduction in the amount
of virus in the blood, normalization of liver function and
seroconversion.8 Among nucleoside-naïve patients without
evidence of lamivudine resistance at baseline, no resistance
has emerged through 96 weeks of treatment with Baraclude.9
About Baraclude (entecavir)
The global Baraclude clinical trial programme was the first
to compare two antivirals, Baraclude and la mivudine (the
most commonly used oral antiviral therapy for the treatment
of chronic hepatitis B worldwide) and involved over 1,600
Bristol-Myers Squibb is a global pharmaceutical and related
health care products company whose mission is to extend and
enhance human life.
More articles by Shashi Gossain B.Sc (Hons), MRPS, Member
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