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June - July 2008
History of the People of Nagaland, India & Sri Lanka
by Dr S. K. Das
I am surprised to note from the recently published article in the Asian Age newspaper, that the Naga people consider themselves as a separate race and claim that they were never part of the Indian union. In the 21st century there are very few historical facts remaining to surprise us, due to the sophisticated investigative procedures (for example those used in determining the origins of man from Australasia, India, Soviet Russia and Native America). In response to that article, I would like to use some references to highlight the real history of the Naga people.
India is a very ancient country and it is mentioned in “Artha Sastra”(a part of the Rig Veda, that when the Aryan people were marching down to the main land mass of India from the Indus River basin to Indra Prastha (Delhi)) that they met many different tribes coming from the North, South and East. One such tribe was found residing in the pataliputra (modern day Bihar) and in part of Northeastern India (modern day Assam). It may also be found in the Mahabharata, that during the time of Lord Krishna’s childhood, he also found a tribe known as the Nagas (The Naga King was also known as the King of Snakes). According to the story, Lord Krishna defeated the Naga tribes who resided on the banks of the Yamuna river. (In fact, this particular battle involving the Naga people and the young Lord Krishna, involved the alleged defeat of the King of Snakes by Lord Krishna dancing on the 5-headed serpent).
After the battle with Lord Krishna, the Naga people were defeated and they migrated towards the south of India and Sri Lanka, via central India, and subsequently established their kingdom along with another tribe known as the Palavas. These Palavas belonged to the ancient Naga people, which was comprised of several primitive races, probably of Afro-Australasian origin. These people may have resided with other ancient people in that area (which included Sri Lanka and the Andaman and Nicobar islands). In one publication (see reference 4), it has been noted that the original migrating tribes from Africa came to India and lived in South India, Sri Lanka and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Subsequently, the same people went towards Europe and some of them occupied Tibet and Siberia and some ultimately crossed over into what is now the United States, and became the Native Americans (see reference 6).
From the DNA studies conducted in the south Indian region, it was established that the residents of these areas (including the Andaman and Nicobar Is.) were Dravidian people and could only be from the original Afro-Australasian race. According to Srinivas Aiyanger, the Naga people were dark skinned, primitive tribes, that lived in simple boats and worshipped Lord Indra. They carved half-human and half-snake images on their temple walls. From a historical point of view, there is strong cultural and genetic evidence to suggest that the Naga people of North-East India were originally Indian and were also likely to be Hindus who worshipped Lord Indra (until they were converted en-masse by Christian evangelists from the UK and United States). It is interesting to note that most of the conversions took place under British rule as they believed the Nagas to be tribes of head-hunters and cannibals. They thought that they could be re-educated as Christians and then encouraged them to seek their own country called ‘Christian Nagaland,’ no doubt in an effort to use this nation as a foothold to launch further religious crusades into India.
In the recent times, the Christian evangelists completely ignored the history of the migration of the Afro-Australasian people who had settled in India and were of Hindu origins, in order to convert them and create a separate state of Nagaland.
THE ANCIENT HISTORY OF SRI LANKA
(Ancient History of Sri Lanka and the History of the Epic Conflict between Ravana, King of Sri Lanka and the King of Ayodha as told in the Ramayana in 7500 B.C.)
Since the epic writings of Balmikis Ramayana’s legends are articles of faith, they cannot be unquestioningly used as archaeological and geographical proof found in the 21st Century and published by Dr. Howard and Professor Wood in the chapter titled “The Story of M130” in the book “The Story of India” gives new life to the legends. According to the story, the so called Ram Sethu/ Adam’s bridge has been there since 65000 years ago, and the lengendary Bhagirath, the explorer of the Ganges found the bridge- which was reconstructed with the help of the aboriginal monkey people- worshippers of Rama, the King of Ayodha and the monkey God Hanuman, who is supposed to be the son of Pawana (King of Wind), who helped in the construction of Ram Sethu 7000 years ago. The story, as told by Rishi Valmiki, that the bridge was constructed by the monkey God Hanuman. The bridge still exists today across the Pak Straight between the Sri Lankan and Indian part of the Ramesharam in South India. These so called ‘monkey’ people were aboriginies who worshipped the God Hanuman.
In the story of the Epic Ramayana (7500 B.C.), Valmiki said that when Rama was exiled by his father in the Dandak forest at the instruction of Kaikye, the second wife of the King of Ayodha, Ravana the King of Sri Lanka noted it, and took the opportunity of kidnapping the beautiful Princess (Sita), by flying to their location in his so called Pushpak-Vimana, the mythological aircraft, which he used to abduct the Princess from the Dandak forests of mainland India. The episode of kidnapping was kept a secret from Ravana’s wife, Mondadory, who originated from the Sola tribe of Tanjore.
The story of Ravana is interesting, and it goes that his ancestors came from Gondwanaland, the connecting link between Africa, Australia and India. Ravana’s ancestors were known as Nagas, because as they migrated from Africa via Gondwanaland to Australia (about 65 000 years ago) and worshipped idols which were half serpent and half human, and thus the people were referred to as ‘Nagas’, worshippers of mythical serpents. Stories say one such serpent was used to churn the ocean at the confluence of Ganga/ Yumana and Saraswati at the Kumbh, celebrated as the Kumbamela in modern days.
On further study of the migration of the Naga tribe, it is thought that they travelled along the Eastern border of India and established in the area now referred to as ‘Nagaland’ in India. It is known today that many of the Naga people also gradually migrated to the Central Indian region via Mathura. It is evident that at that time, Lord Krishna was the young Prince of this region, and could not tolerate the Naga tribe engaged in killing cattle belonging to Krishna, and ultimately Lord Krishna the “Joshada Nandan- Prince of Mathura” fought a battle near the region now known as Kaliadar and defeated the Nagas. The story of the battle mentioned in ‘Krishna Purana’ written by the Sage Vias in 3400 B.C., describes this battle as a fictional story, and detailed that the young Lord Krishna as having danced on the five headed serpenthood, killing the serpent and driving the Nagas to the Central region of India.
The story of the Indus civilization is known from the writings of Lord Mortimer Wheeler, which noted the migration of the Naga people from the East, who confronted the migrating Aryans from Mohenzadaro and Harappa and descending to Central India while spreading their Aryan civilization towards the South. After several centuries the Nagas re-established the camp in ‘Chotto- Nagpur’ and ‘Nagpur’, enroute to South India, ultimately to the Kerala area and to Sri Lanka and the Anadaman & Nicobar Islands.
In a recent publication and analysis of Nagas, Andaman tribes and Nambudripod people of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, show that the Naga people who migrated to this area show the presence of the M130 gene, which is known as the original Human chain gene inherited from the Afro- Australian Naga peoples (Neanderthals). It is evident from the gene study of the area that the first human male, the so called Adam, possessed the M130 gene and was one of the original people to establish themselves in India and had encountered the people of the Nambudripod tribe, and possibly met a girl (known as Eve), who was born locally, and the whole story was adopted in the European Bible as the Adam and Eve story who lived in Sri Lanka or the Island of Paradise..
Referencing new articles in various newspaper and books, authors described Adam and Eve, featured in bible stories, as possibly having carried the M130 gene, which shows traces of ancestral mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome originating from the earliest genetic heritage of India, fleshing out the history of our Neanderthal ancestors.
According to the original Ramachorita-purana, Ravana’s tribe (who carried the same M130 gene), occupied Sri Lanka and established themselves there. The same Naga people and Ravana also worshipped the same God, so were devoted to the Lord Shiva. Ravana also developed the skill to engage in underground transport system called the Patala and Vimanas to fly in the sky.
The Sri Lankan Tourist Authority, S. Kalaiselvam, has spent large sums of money since 2007 in the trail of the Ramayana. He also agreed to put forward the Ramayana trail about 40 interesting sites together and to invite the Indian people interested in trailing the folklore of the Ramayana.
All Sinhalese people are Tamil in origin, since the island was conquered by the Bengal prince. Bijoya married an aborigines Princess from Patala and ruled half of the island. As it happens, the Tamil people of the land of Sinhala originated from South India, and lived in the Central part of Sri Lanka- took the upper hand and called themselves the original islanders, claiming that they originated from the Tamil land and are more cultured. However, those who originated from Bijoya’s progeny remained uncultured and lived in the mountains and periphery of the Island, leading to the conflict between the two Tamil tribes today in the 20th Century.
According to Dr. R. Virchow, after studying a series of bony features of the Vedas from Tamil land and Sinhala people’s skulls, he opined that the Vedas are the original Aboriginis but the so called original Sinhala aboriginal race are nothing but hybrids produced through a union of immigrants from Tamil lands and Vedas, who also came earlier from South India. Anthropologically, both of these groups originated from Indian Tamils and also the Sola people of Tanjore.
Thus the final conclusion of Dr. R. Virchow is that the Vedas, as well as the Sinhalese are indistinguishable from Ceylon Tamils and equally from those of the Tanjore (Sola) race, and the original Dravidians or Pre- Dravidian tribes which carry the M130 gene from Nagas. When Bijoya’s army invaded Sri Lanka via the Ram Sethu Bridge and established a civilized race in the North by marrying the Princess of Patala, who originated from the Vedas of the Tamil lands several centuries earlier but did not carry the M130 gene. The Vedas mixed with and married the Kandin Sinhalese tribe of Ravana, who also originated from the Indian Vedas, and who probably carried the M130 gene. Vedas of the Tamil lands were known fishermen and killed animals in the forest. The Vedas, who originated from the Dravidian and Pre- Dravidian races of Hindustan but probably they did not carry the M130 gene yet looked the same anthropologically.
In summary, the so called island of Ceylon was populated by Vedas in the Ancient times. The land of Ceylon was mistakenly called an island but the land was always attached to the main land of India by the Ram Sethu/ Adam’s bridge (built 7000 years ago or earlier). The first migrating Humans carrying the M130 gene, may have crossed the Ram Sethu, thus it is called the ‘Adam’s Bridge’.
The bridge remains above water after the Great flood several centuries ago which also washed away Lord Sri Krishna’s Dwarika (now being rediscovered by Mr. Graham Hancock’s underwater investigtion). The land of Sinhala was invaded by the South Indian race from Indian Tamils who laid the foundation stones of the advanced civilization in Sri Lanka via Prince Bijoya’s expedition. The Central part of Sri Lanka was further ruled since 1505 by the Portugese followed by the Dutch until 1796, when the British occupied the Island, who encouraged the continuing division between the Tamils in the Central parts of Sri Lanka and Northern parts with the peoples from the East and peripheral parts of the Island, and this conflict between the Northerners and the Eastern peoples has continued until the present day.